Published Papers

The papers listed in this section provide detailed descriptions of the SinterCast process control technology, CGI properties, machinability and CGI engine technology.

Process Control

Process Control For the Production of Compacted Graphite Iron

A detailed review of the stable range for CGI production and the challenges associated with high-volume CGI production. The paper provides a detailed review of the SinterCast Sampling Cup and the control processes for ladle production and for pressurised pouring furnaces.

Thermal Analysis and Process Control for Compacted Graphite Iron and Ductile Iron

An overview of cast iron solidification and thermal analysis as the basis of process control for the production of CGI and Ductile Iron

Tupy-Brazil: Production Experience with Compacted Graphite Iron Automotive Components 

Written together with Tupy. An overview of CGI product development activities at the Tupy foundry in Brazil. Comparative results for residual stress measurements on grey iron and CGI cylinder blocks are also provided. Published by the American Foundry Society.

A Novel Approach to Process Control and Traceability in the Cast Iron Foundry Industry

Series production of the high volume CGI cylinder block for the Ford 2.7 and 3.0 litre V6 petrol engine at the Tupy Saltillo foundry using the SinterCast Ladle Tracker® and System 3000 Plus technologies.

CGI Properties & Machining

Compacted Graphite Iron: Mechanical and Physical Properties for Engine Design

A detailed review of the mechanical and physical properties of CGI as a function of chemistry, microstructure and temperature. Properties covered include tensile testing, compressive yield strength, hardness, wear resistance, fatigue and notch sensitivity, damping capacity and thermal conductivity.

The Effect of Metallurgical Variables on the Machinability of Compacted Graphite Iron

A detailed review of the effects of graphite shape control, matrix structure and the impact of different pearlite stabilizers, and the critical roles of sulphur and titanium on CGI machinability. This paper was originally awarded the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Arch T. Colwell Merit Award.

CGI Engine Technology

The Petrol Engine Cylinder Block Re-invented: Cast Iron with the Same Weight as Aluminium

Published jointly with Tupy and Ricardo at the 43rd International Vienna Motor paper presents the redesign of a state-of-the-art three-cylinder 1.2 litre petrol engine, converting the cylinder block from aluminium to cast iron. The fully assembled CGI cylinder block was one kilogram lighter than the aluminium block, and provided improved manufacturing and life cycle CO2 footprints.

Compacted Graphite Iron – A New Material for Highly Stressed Cylinder Blocks and Cylinder Heads
Vermicular-Graphit-Guss: Ein neues Material für höchst beanspruchte Motorblöcke und Zylinderköpfe

The paper provides a review of CGI material properties and design advantages of CGI in comparison to grey iron, alloyed grey iron and aluminium. The paper also provides an overview of current national and international CGI Standards. This invited paper was presented at the 28th International Vienna Motor Symposium on 27 April 2007 and was co-authored by Dr. S. Dawson and Prof. Dr. F. Indra, Honorary Professor, Vienna University of Technology.

Cast Iron – We Just Need to Get Better at Telling Our Story

The 2018 Millis keynote presentation provides an overview of the importance of life cycle analyses to truly understand the CO2 emissions associated with the use of aluminium for weight reduction, and with the use of electric vehicles instead of internal combustion engines.