Technical Papers – English

One Page Technology Descriptions

The one-page fliers listed in this section provide a general introduction to CGI and the SinterCast technology. More detailed technical descriptions are available in the following sections.

CGI Material Data Sheet

An overview of typical chemical compositions and the mechanical and physical properties of CGI.

SinterCast Process Control

A description of the feed-forward control strategy and process flow for foundries using ladle production.

Microstructure and Porosity Control

A review of the effects of magnesium fading during the production of CGI and a description of the patented Mg-fade simulation of the SinterCast Sampling Cup.

System 4000 and System 4000 Plus

A review of the functionality and technical specifications of System 4000 and System 4000 Plus.

Mini-System 4000

A review of the functionality and technical specifications of the Mini-System 4000 and a description of the Sampling Cup.

Tracking Technologies

A review of the SinterCast Ladle Tracker® and the SinterCast Cast Tracker® to provide complete traceability, including tracking of ladles, flasks, cores and castings.

Published Papers

The papers listed in this section provide detailed descriptions of the SinterCast process control technology, CGI properties, machinability and the SinterCast market opportunity.

43rd International Vienna Motor Symposium, 2022

The Petrol Engine Cylinder Block Re-invented: Cast Iron with the Same Weight as Aluminium

Published jointly with Tupy and Ricardo, the paper presents the redesign of a state-of-the-art three-cylinder 1.2 litre petrol engine, converting the cylinder block from aluminium to cast iron. The fully assembled CGI cylinder block was one kilogram lighter than the aluminium block, and provided improved manufacturing and life cycle CO2 footprints.

Keith Millis Symposium 2018 – Keynote Address

Cast Iron – We just need to get better at telling our story

The 2018 Millis keynote presentation provides an overview of the importance of life cycle analyses to truly understand the CO2 emissions associated with the use of aluminium for weight reduction, and with the use of electric vehicles instead of internal combustion engines.

Thermal Analysis for CGI and Ductile Iron

Thermal Analysis and Process Control for Compacted Graphite Iron and Ductile Iron

An overview of cast iron solidification and thermal analysis as the basis of process control for the production of CGI and Ductile Iron

Process Control and Series Production References

Process Control for the Production of Compacted Graphite Iron

A detailed review of the stable range for CGI production and the challenges associated with high-volume CGI production. The paper provides a detailed review of the SinterCast Sampling Cup and the control processes for ladle production and for pressurised pouring furnaces.

A Novel Approach to Process Control and Traceability in the Cast Iron Foundry Industry

Series production of the high volume CGI cylinder block for the Ford 2.7 and 3.0 litre V6 petrol engine at the Tupy Saltillo foundry using the SinterCast Ladle Tracker® and System 3000 Plus technologies.

Tupy-Brazil: Production Experience with Compacted Graphite Iron Automotive Components 

Written together with Tupy. An overview of CGI product development activities at the Tupy foundry in Brazil. Comparative results for residual stress measurements on grey iron and CGI cylinder blocks are also provided. Published by the American Foundry Society.

CGI Properties

Compacted Graphite Iron: Mechanical and Physical Properties for Engine Design

A detailed review of the mechanical and physical properties of CGI as a function of chemistry, microstructure and temperature. Properties covered include tensile testing, compressive yield strength, hardness, wear resistance, fatigue and notch sensitivity, damping capacity and thermal conductivity.

CGI Engine Design

Compacted Graphite Iron – A New Material for Highly Stressed Cylinder Blocks and Cylinder Heads
Vermicular-Graphit-Guss: Ein neues Material für höchst beanspruchte Motorblöcke und Zylinderköpfe

The paper provides a review of CGI material properties and design advantages of CGI in comparison to grey iron, alloyed grey iron and aluminium. The paper also provides an overview of current national and international CGI Standards. This invited paper was presented at the 28th International Vienna Motor Symposium on 27 April 2007 and was co-authored by Dr. S. Dawson and Prof. Dr. F. Indra, Honorary Professor, Vienna University of Technology.

CGI Machining

The Effect of Metallurgical Variables on the Machinability of Compacted Graphite Iron

A detailed review of the effects of graphite shape control, matrix structure and the impact of different pearlite stabilizers, and the critical roles of sulphur and titanium on CGI machinability. This paper was originally awarded the 2002 SAE Arch T. Colwell Merit Award.